How is Malaysia being democratic, or “democratic”?

Yes, almost three years had already been passed since Malaysia’s 2013 general election. Now Anwar is sitting in his prison cell in Kedah for a charge that does not even exist in the British Common Law instead of Office of Prime Minister in Putrajaya, Malaysia’s administrative capital.


Pakatan Rakyat won Malaysia’s general election by popular vote by a plurality of 3.49% and a majority of 0.87%. However, Malaysia’s first past the post (1PTP) system barred Pakatan Rakyat from taking office. In fact, Parakan Rakyat only won 89 of the 222 constituencies, meaning that Barisan Nasional still won 133 seats.


Barisan Nasional have been ruling ever since Malaysia’s independence and held a 2/3 majority in the Dewan Rakyat in every election until 2005. Barisan Nasional’s overwhelming election success in Malaysia had been signifying Malaysia’s ethnically inequality and ethnically partition ever since opposition parties are around. The establishment of Barisan Nasional was a ethnically appeasement project lead by Abdul Razak, Malaysia’s second prime minister, for more election victories. Barisan Nasional unified many political parties from different ethnicities, “claiming” equal representation for all. Attempts to achieve this was very successful; the new coalition unified every political party in Malaysia except the Democratic Action Party.

A 1PTP electoral system does not represent inequality. While proportional representation signifies “fairness”, a 1PTP system can be fair or unfair depending on the jurisdiction of the country. Election to the United States Congress also uses the 1PTP system but it is perfectly equal represented, with only a infinitesimal variation score of 0.014. [1] (despite state-legislature controlled gerrymandering teams could redraw congressional borders to serve at their employer’s interest) According to Wiktionary, malapportionment is the process that voting districts are unevenly spread out across a population. [2] According to MP Yang Berhomat Ong Kian Ming, Malaysia is one of the most malapportioned countries in the world. Also according to Mr. Ong, the United States, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and Canada all have legislations that restricts the largest variation in the size of electoral acts, [1] but Malaysia has no such rule. Malaysia’s used to Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya(electoral commission) publishes records that can be accessed by the public online, but is no longer doing so after the 2013 election. According to the latest publication in 2008, 109th congressional district in Klang has 112,224 registered voters, whereas 125th congressional district in Putrajaya only has 6608 registered voter. If the 109th district is broken into clusters of 6608 voters, it could be broken into 16 such clusters and still have 6496 leftover voters. In Selangor, each constituency has around 90000 registered voters, whereas in Sarawak, each constituency only has 30000 of that. [3]

Having elections held regularly do not indicate democracy and progress. Malaysia’s equivocal system demonstrates that. If Pakatan Herapan takes office in the next election, its priority is to reapportion all electoral districts in the country and establish legislations that forbid the process of malapportionment made by local governments.


  1. Ong, Kian Ming, Yang Berhomat MP. “Malaysia among the Most Malapportioned Countries in the World.” Ong Kian Ming RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.
  2. Contributors. “Malapportionment.” – Wiktionary. Wikimedia Foundation, 2007. Web. 28 Jan. 2016. [CC BY-SA 3.0]
  3. “KEPUTUSAN PILIHAN RAYA UMUM KE-12.” KEPUTUSAN PILIHAN RAYA UMUM KE-12. Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya, n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2016.



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