Author: admin

Kennedy’s Retirement and Implications

Kennedy’s retirement marks just another transformation that Trump is able to permanently alter the federal judiciary   After historic numbers of appointments, Trump is finally able to make his second Supreme Court appointment to replace Anthony Kennedy   For years Kennedy’s swing vote has protected civil rights, upheld labor protection laws, and against mass incarceration. […]

短暂的美国政府介绍和监管机构一览

自1789年美国立宪以来,联邦以及各州政府的权力已经发生了翻天覆地的变化。在杰佛逊时期,包括总统和内阁部长们,美国联邦政府仅仅有数百名员工。今天,美国联邦政府是世界最大的雇主之一,有着超过2,700,000名在美国各州和世界各地外交官邸馆驻扎的员工们。 美国的联邦政府分为三部分,行政部分,立法部分,和司法部分。立法部分被分割为两个分支——参议院和众议院。美国的50个州均有两名成员代表该州担任参议员,由该州州民选出,并担任六年任期。众议院由联邦法律规定有435名众议员,并且分割为435个基本人口等同的选区选出议员。参议院和众议院平时组织进委员会,来负责特定事物。 行政部分由一名由538个成员所构成的选举团(electoral college)所选出。选举团的538名成员为民选且代表美国50个州或华盛顿特区的选民的民意。每个州均有该州国会众议员数量加参议员数量的选举人数;宪法规定,华盛顿特区只能有不超过选举人数最少的州的选举人数。法律规定,除内布拉斯加州和缅因州以外的选举团成员均全部代表一个政党,由赢下该州的政党决定选举团成员。 司法部分分三级—最高法院,联邦上诉法院,和联邦地区法院。法院法官均由总统任命,参议院批准,并任期终身且不能被解雇。美国全国共有94个联邦地区法院,受理联邦初审刑事及民事案件;94个联邦地区法院诉讼双方有权利上诉至9个联邦上诉法院;9个联邦上诉法院双方有权利提交上诉到最高法院,但最高法院选择是否审理案件,而不是类似联邦上诉法院必须审理。 美国联邦政府立法部分可制定法律确定管理方向,但由行政部分对这些方向进行实际管理。美国总统也有签署行政令的权利;行政令的权力等同于法律,但是可以被下一任总统撤销。比如说,美国共和党人大力反对的儿童抵达延期行动(Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals))便是奥巴马总统的行政令,独立机构Consumer Financial Protection Bureau的创立也是奥巴马总统的行政令。同样,立法部分有权力创造新的行政部门或独立机构:比如说,独立机构美国证券交易委员会便是1934年的Securities & Exchange Act所创立的。行政部门和独立机构的区别在于总统可以随意解雇行政部门的部长,解雇独立机构的局长必须有合理原因。 美国法律要求,任命任何行政部门和独立机构的部长,副部长,以及主要官员均由总统提出,参议院批准。美国现任内阁共有22个位置,虽然除内阁外,其他部门也对美国的政策制定起到至关重要的作用。 内阁中,美国国务院(Department of State)负责美国的外交事物,参与制定美国外交政策,管理美国驻各国使领馆,批准和拒绝签证申请,帮助美国企业在外国开展工作,以及保护在外美国人。国务院部长称为国务卿(Secretary of State),由参议院外交委员会(Foreign Relations Committee)批准。 美国财政部(Department of the Treasury)负责印制钞票,刻制硬币,收取税收和关税,为联邦政府支付债务,管理联邦政府各部门财务,管理联邦银行和起诉逃税漏税者。财政部部长和重要官员为参议院财政委员会(Finance Committee)批准。 美国国防部(Department of Defense)负责管理美国军队,以及为美国政府收集情报。国防情报局,国家安全局,国家地理空间情报局和国家侦察办公室均为美国国防部下的情报机构。美国国防部官员有时也参与和国防有关的外交事宜。国防部部长和重要官员为参议院军事委员会(Armed Services Committee)批准。 美国司法部(Department of Justice)负责在美国政府为诉讼一方时代表美国政府,调查联邦犯罪行为,调查金融犯罪,管理联邦监狱系统,以及运营联邦联邦执法机构,比如联邦调查局(FBI)和毒品管理局(Drug Enforcement Administration, DEA)。司法部部长和重要官员为参议院司法委员会(Judiciary Committee)批准。 美国内政部(Department of Interior)负责管理美国联邦土地,联邦海洋,自然资源,管理和美国原住民有关事物,以及运营国家公园及华盛顿特区周围的道路。内政部长和重要官员由参议院能源和自然资源委员会(Energy and Natural Resources Committee)批准。 美国农业部(Department of Agriculture)负责管理和农业,林业和食物有关事宜。农业部设定美国食物标准以及营养标准,同时管理美国政府社会福利中的粮票(全名补充营养援助计划,Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program)。农业部长和重要官员由农业,营养,和林业委员会(Agriculture, Nutrition, […]

A Short History of Voter Suppression

Voter suppression has been mentioned by numerous political pundits across the political spectrum; However, it is difficult to measure the impact of these voting irregularities. Therefore, several types of factors should be considered to understand voter suppression completely. This paper will examine the various techniques of voter suppression, including strict voter ID laws, gerrymandering, felon […]

How Partisanship Transcends Ideology: An Investigation into U.S. Congress members’ Voting Records on Abortion

Abstract Each congressional session, NARAL(1) and NRLC(2) publish their scorecards on legislators’ performances on votes related to abortion. Ostensibly, abortion is one of the most divisive issues in American politics and the ideological positions of candidates would be imperative for abortion-centered voters. Recently, the polarization of American politics has almost erased moderatism, creating a hyper-partisan […]

Decoding Abortion: How Abortion went from an Unknown Medical Procedure to No. 1 Social Issue in America

Introduction Abortion is the medical procedure of the termination of pregnancy after the elimination of the fetus. Because of the procedure’s grim nature, it is one of the most heated topics up for debate in the United States. A Pew Research Center survey conducted in 2016 indicates that 98% of Americans have an opinion in […]

Georgia’s 6th Congressional District: Pre-election Briefings

With Georgia’s 6th Congressional District special election coming imminently, Democrats and Republicans alike are panicking around the potential results of this crucial special election in this highly educated Republican-leaning, but anti-Trump region located in the deep South. This special election, although would not influence the control of the House in any ways (as the seat […]

An Argument for Ranked Choice Voting in a School Election Context

1 Introduction   Electoral reform is one of the main goals mentioned by Justin Trudeau (and his Liberal party)’s 2015 federal election platform; the goal has since been abandoned, but the survey (mydemocracy.ca) has communicated a clear message to the Canadian public—Canadians are not satisfied with first-past-the-post voting system. (Canada 2017) On pp. 53 of […]

Poll: Trump unpopular, but still leads Warren by double digits

Eastern Research is my own polling apparatus. It is not a polling firm as it has no employee other than myself.  Vancouver, B.C. – Eastern Research’s new national poll shows Trump remains the most unpopular president ever inaugurated since the invention of national polls. Three weeks into the administration, only 48% of the eligible voters […]